The MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustrations

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  1. Finding Aid to Related Materials
  2. A Chronological Break-Down of the "Middle Ages"
  3. Additional Resources
  4. Other Bibliographies Online
  5. Other Digital Collections

Finding Aid to Related Materials

Inventory of the Loren Carey MacKinney Collection on Medieval Medicine, circa 1930-1963
Southern Historical Collection, Coll. #3665
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

A Chronological Break-Down of the "Middle Ages"

Late Antiquity (ca. 250-600/700): An era of transition in politics, society and religious life. No longer the classical Roman world of Cicero and Caesar, but not yet the Middle Ages either.

Early Middle Ages (ca. 600/700-1000): Europe hits a rough patch, with political fragmentation, cultural limitations, and a stagnate economy, but also laying critical foundations for later developments.

The High Middle Ages (ca. 1000-1300/1350): the European economy, society, politics, and intellectual life flourish in this confident age of cathedrals, a strong papacy, crusaders and increasingly capable monarchies.

The Later Middle Ages (ca. 1300/1350-1500): Plague, war, famine, religious disputes and cultural uncertainty illustrate the limits of the "medieval synthesis," but also point toward the coming of the modern age.

Additional Resources

Medieval History

Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization, and Cultural Change, 950-1350. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. This influential work explores how the expansion of Europe in the High Middle Ages shaped the internal dynamics of European society, as well as the lands along its frontiers. Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. (1939). Trans. L. A. Manyon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. A classic that takes a sweeping look at the institutions, mores, and mentality of the Early and High Middle Ages. Bossy, John. Christianity and the West, 1400-1700. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Bossy explores the transition from the later Middle Ages into the era of the Protestant Reformation, without assuming that the later medieval church was decadent or in decline. Brown, Peter L. The Cult of Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. Brown examines the social and cultural function of saints' relics in late antiquity, countering the notion that the cult of saints represented a "popular," pagan survival in the Christian world. ———. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988. Brown looks at sexuality and Christian attitudes toward the body for what they tell us about the transformations of the Roman world in late antiquity. ———. The World of Late Antiquity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. A classic by the historian who put "late antiquity" on the map. Bynum, Caroline W. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: the Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. Drawing upon anthropology and a sympathetic reading of the sources, this important work explores the meaning of food and fasting for women's spirituality in the Later Middle Ages. Constable, Giles. The Reformation of the Twelfth-Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. A venerable figure of medieval studies looks at the creative and often turbulent changes in the forms of religious life that accompanied the High Middle Ages. Duby, George. Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West. (1968). Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania Press, 1998. If you are interested in the gritty details of economic life and society in the Early Middle Ages, this is your book. Elliott, Dyan. Spiritual Marriage: Sexual Abstinence in Medieval Wedlock. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. By exploring the practice of "spiritual marriage" (that is, couples who remain in wedlock but forbear conjugal relations), Elliott exposes some of the tensions in the effort of the Roman Church to drawn a clear line between the married laity and celibate clergy. Fichtenau, Heinrich. Living in the Tenth Century. Trans. Patrick Geary. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. This unusual work immerses its reader in the mores, mentalities, symbols and customs of the tenth century, a period often skipped over by surveys of medieval history. Freedman, Paul. Images of the Medieval Peasant. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. This book might not tell you much about the "lived experiences" of agricultural laborers in the later Middle Ages, but it draws an evocative portrait of how Europe's literate elite viewed the peasants that surrounded them on all sides. Geary, Patrick. Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Moving beyond the stereotypes of "decline and fall," Geary guides his readers through the rough-and-tumble world of barbarians and local Romans in Western Europe, who realize that they could make it on their own without the increasingly ineffective imperial government. Given, James. Inquisition and Medieval Society: Power, Discipline and Resistance in Languedoc. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. Given explores the interplay "inquisitors" and "heretics" on a local level, avoiding stereotypes about "the Inquisition" as pervasive, all-powerful entity that terrorized medieval society. Gold, Penny S. The Lady and the Virgin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. This slim volume explores the worlds of medieval "epic" and "romance," and what they tell us (or not) about the lives of actual women in the High Middle Ages. Lawrence, C. H. Medieval Monasticism. London: Longman, 1989. A comprehensive survey of monastic life and institutions from late antiquity to the end of the Middle Ages. Little, Lester. Religious Poverty and the Profit Economy in Medieval Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978. Little asks how the rapidly developing economy of the High Middle Ages impacted medieval spirituality, ranging from increased animosity toward the Jews (associated with usury) to creative forms of urban piety. Kedar, Benjamin. Crusade and Mission. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. This volume explores the development of medieval Christian attitudes toward the conversion of Muslims, inextricably linked to notions of violent conflict between the two faiths. McKitterick, Rosamond. The Carolingians and the Written Word. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. McKitterick examines the political, social, and intellectual importance of literacy during the "Caroingian Renaissance" of the late-eight and early-ninth centuries. Moore, R. I. Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. With this famous and hotly debated work, Moore put the question of Christian attitudes toward "Others" (e.g. heretic, Jews, lepers) front and center in how we understand the High Middle Ages. Morris, Colin. The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050-1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. A sweeping look at the development of the Roman Church and papacy during its "golden age" of the High Middle Ages. Muldoon, James. Popes, Lawyers and Infidels: The Church and the Non-Christian World. Philadelphia: University of Pennslyvania Press, 1979. A personal favorite that examines how the Roman Church claimed authority over the "outside world" of non-believers during the European expansion of the High Middle Ages up until the "discovery" of the New World. Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. London: Athlone, 1986. A concise, readable volume that covers the basics on crusading. Spiegel, Gabrielle. The Past as Text: Theory and Practice of Medieval Historiography. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1997. A medievalist's take on the "linguistic turn" and the place of medieval studies in post-modern academics. Southern, Richard. The Making of the Middle Ages. London: Pimlico, 1953. A must-read classic that feels its way through the society, culture, piety, and sensibilities of the High Middle Ages. Straw, Carol. Gregory the Great: Perfection in Imperfection. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. Straw brings the reader into intimate contact with the spirituality and intellectual universe of Pope Gregory I, one of the greatest and most influential popes of the early Middle Ages. Sullivan, Richard. "The Carolingian Age: Reflections on its Place in the History of the Middle Ages." Speculum 64 (1989): 267-306. A survey of scholarship on the Carolingian era, which tells us less about the Carolingians, and more about what we want to see in them. Tellenbach, Gerd. Church, State and Christian Society at the Time of the Investiture Contest. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1940. Tellenbach explores the "clash of popes and emperors" for supremacy during the eleventh century, paying particular attention to the theoretical underpinnings of their claims to universal authority.

Medieval Illustrations and Illuminations

Alexander, J.J.G. Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992. Altet, Xavier Barral I., ed. Medieval Artistes, Artisans et Production Artistique au Moyen Age. 3 vol. Paris: Picard, 1986, 1987, 1990. Backhouse, Janet. Medieval The Illuminated Manuscript. Oxford: Phaidon, 1979. Bland, David. Medieval A History of Book Illustration; The Illuminated Manuscript and the Printed Book. 2nd rev. ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969. Brown, Michelle. Medieval The Lindisfarne Gospels: Society, Spirituality and the Scribe. London: The British Library, 2003. Clemens, Raymond and Timothy Graham. Medieval Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007. De Hamel, Christopher. Medieval A History of Illuminated Manuscripts. 2nd ed. London and New York: Phaidon Press, Inc., 1994. Deshman, Robert. Medieval The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. Diringer, David. Medieval The Illuminated Book; Its History and Production. 2nd ed. London: Faber & Faber, 1967. Givens, Jean A., Karen Meier Reeds, and Alain Touwaide. Medieval Visualizing Medieval Medicine and Natural History, 1200-1550. Avista Studies in the History of Medieval Technology, Science and Art. Aldershot, England, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006. Herrlinger, Robert. Medieval History of Medical Illustrations, from Antiquity to 1600. New York: Editions Medicina Rara, 1970. Jones, Peter Murray. Medieval Medieval Medical Miniatures. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985. Jones, Peter Murray and British Library. Medieval Medieval Medicine in Illuminated Manuscripts. Rev. ed. London; Milan, Italy: British Library; Centro Tibaldi, 1998. Lowden, John. Medieval The Making of the Bibles Moralisées. 2 vol. University Park and London: Penn State Press, 2000. MacKinney, Loren C. and Thomas Herndon. Medieval Medical Illustrations in Medieval Manuscripts: Part I: Early Medicine in Illuminated Manuscripts and Part II: Medical Miniatures in the Extant Manuscripts: A Checklist Compiled with the Assistance of Thomas Herndon. London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965. Pächt, Otto. Medieval Buchmalerei des Mittelalters: Eine Einf&#uuml;hrung. Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1984. Rouse, Richard and Mary Rouse. Medieval Manuscripts and Their Makers: Commercial Book Producers in Medieval Paris, 1200-1500. 2 vol. Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2000. Scheller, Robert W. Medieval Exemplum: Model-Book Drawings and the Practice of Artistic Transmission in the Middle Ages (ca. 900 - ca. 1470). Trans. M. Hoyle. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1995. Shailor, Barbara. Medieval The Medieval Book: Illustrated from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Catalogue of an Exhibition at the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University. New Haven: Yale University Library, 1988. Stahl, Harvey. Medieval Picturing Kingship: History and Painting in the Psalter of Saint Louis. University Park and London: Penn State Press, 2008. Uhl, Ingeborg. Medieval Buchmalerei: Geschichte, Technik, und Ikonographie. Grosse Erbe. Ettal: Buch-Kunstverlag, 1971. Weitzmann, Kurt. Medieval Ancient Book Illumination. Martin Classical Lectures, vol. XVI. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959. ———. Medieval Illustrations in Roll and Codex: A Study of the Origin and Method of Text Illustration. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945, reprinted with additions, 1970.

Medieval Medical History

Amundsen, Darrel W. Medicine, Society, and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Benedictow, Ole J. The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK; Rochester N.Y. USA: Boydell Press, 2004. Biedermann, Hans. Medicina Magica: Metaphyisiche Heilmethoden in Spätantiken Und Mittelalterlichen Handschriften. Birmingham, AL: Classics of Medicine Library, Division of Gryphon Editions, 1986. Bowers, Barbara S. The Medieval Hospital and Medical Practice. AVISTA Studies in the History of Medieval Technology, Science, and Art. vol. 3. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007. Cadden, Joan. The Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture. Cambridge, England; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Campbell, Sheila, Bert Hall, and David Klauser. Health, Disease, and Healing in Medieval Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. Collins, Minta. Medieval Herbals: The Illustrative Traditions. London: The British Library, 2000. French, Roger. Medicine before Science: The Rational and Learned Doctor from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Cambridge, U.K.; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Furdell, Elizabeth Lane. Textual Healing: Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Medicine. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions, vol. 110. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2005. Givens, Jean A., Karen Reeds, and Alain Touwaide. Visualizing Medieval Medicine and Natural History, 1200-1550. AVISTA Studies in the History of Medieval Technology, Science, and Art, vol. 5. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006. Grmek, Mirko D., ed. Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Jacquart, Danielle, and Clauide Thomasset. Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. McVaugh, Michael. The Rational Surgery of the Middle Ages. Firenze: SISMEL/Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2006. ———. Medicine before the Plague: Practitioners and Their Patients in the Crown of Aragon, 1285-1345. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. O'Boyle, Cornelius. The Art of Medicine: Medical Teaching at the University of Paris, 1250-1400. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Pouchelle, Marie-Christine. The Body and Surgery in the Middle Ages. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990. Ridwan, Ali ibn. Medieval Islamic Medicine. Trans. and introduced by Michael W. Dols. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. Shatzmiller, Joseph. Jews, Medicine, and Medieval Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Siraisi, Nancy G. Medieval & Early Renaissance Medicine: An Introduction to Knowledge and Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Theodoric. The Surgery of Theodoric ca. A.D. 1267. Trans. Eldridge Campbell and James Colton. 2 vols. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955-60.

Other Bibliographies Online

Manuscript Studies: Medieval and Early Modern

Medieval Bibliography

A Select Bibliography for Medieval Studies (Yale University)

The ORB: On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies: Index

The ORB: On-Line Reference Book for Medieval Studies: Medicine

Medieval Studies: General Bibliographies, Reference Works, and Internet Resources (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

Medieval Studies: A Selective Guide to Resources (UNC)

Medica: The Society for the Study of Healing in the Middle Ages: Bibliography of Medieval Medicine

T.J. Ray: The Eclectic Eccentric: Medieval resources: Bibliographies

ITER: Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance

Other Digital Collections

Index of Medieval Medical Images
Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library
University of California, Los Angeles

The Digital Scriptorium
Columbia University Libraries

Roman de la Rose Digital Surrogates of Medieval Manuscripts
Milton S. Eisenhower Library (John Hopkins University)
The Pierpont Morgan Library

Digital Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts
The British Library

Digital Library of Illuminated Manuscripts
Lehigh University Digtial Library

Digital Medieval Manuscripts
Houghton Library (Harvard College)

Digital Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts (DigCIM)
University of London

Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts
National Library of the Netherlands

Islamic Medical Manuscripts
National Library of Medicine, London

Medieval Medical Manuscripts
Harleian Collection, The British Library

The scene above depicts a monkey doctor performing uroscopy on a crane. The image is a part of a manuscript held by the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, MS 298, folio 81r.
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