For all in-text citations except for those following block quotations (see below), the reference is placed immediately before the final punctuation mark of the sentence that refers to that source. In all citations, elements (such as author, publication year, and page number) are separated from each other by commas.
For Exact Quotations:
In the examples below, the citations indicate page number (using the abbreviation "p."). One may also use chapter numbers ("Chapter 6"), paragraph numbers ("para. 4"),section numbers, equation numbers, table numbers, or any other organizational numbering that exists in the source to indicate the reference for a citation.
Rule: Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Put the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation before the ending punctuation mark.
As Davis (1978) reported, "If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists" (p. 26).
Rule: When the author's name does not appear in the signal phrase, place the author's name, the date, and the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation. Use commas between items in the parentheses.
"If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists" (Davis, 1978, p. 26).
Rule: When the quotation is more than 40 words in text, do not use quotation marks, but indent the quotation into its own block of text. Note that for blocks of text, the citation follows the final punctuation of the quoted text.
Students having a hard time finding databases isn't a new phenomenon. At the University of Washington, they have problems too.
With the addition of so many new databases to the campus online system, many students were having difficulty locating the database they needed. At the same time, the role of Session Manager had evolved. The increased importance of the Session Manager as a selection tool made it a part of the navigation process itself. (Eliasen, 1997, p. 510)
For Paraphrased Ideas:
In general, no quotation marks are required when paraphrasing ideas. Likewise, page numbers or other indication of specific parts of a source are not necessary unless a specific part of the text is being referenced.
According to Davis (1978), when they learned of an ape's ability to use sign language, both linguists and animal behaviorists were taken by surprise.
When they learned of an ape's ability to use sign language, both linguists and animal behaviorists were taken by surprise (Davis, 1978).
Rule: Work with two authors: In the first reference to work, list both authors.
Patterson and Linden (1981) agreed that the gorilla Koko acquired language more slowly than a normal speaking child.
Koko acquired language more slowly than a normal speaking child (Patterson & Linden, 1981).
Rule: Work with 3-5 authors: In the first reference to such a work, list all authors.
The study noted a fluctuating divorce rate in Middletown between the 1920s and the 1970s (Caplow, Bahr, Chadwick, Hill, & Williamson, 1982).
In subsequent citations, use the first author's name followed by "et al." (note the period after the word "al").
While the incidence of wife abuse may not be higher than in the past, the researchers found that women were more willing to report it (Caplow et al., 1982).
Rule: Work with 6+ authors (for first and subsequent citations).
Communes in the late 1960s functioned like extended families, with child-rearing responsibilities shared by all adult members (Berger et al., 1971).
Rule: Work by an association, government agency, or corporation.
First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1996)
Later citations: (NIMH, 1996)
Rule: When citing from a source that does not provide page numbers (such as an electronic source), use paragraph numbers if available, or the name of the section followed by the number of the paragraph within that section.
(Myers, 2000, para. 5)
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)
Rule: When citing from a source with no author given, or when citing from legal materials, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year as your citation. Place article, web page, chapter, and section titles in double quotation marks, and italicize the titles of books, periodicals, reports, and websites. When a work's author is designated as "Anonymous," cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date: (Anonymous, 1998).
("Former FBI Agent," 2007)
...as seen in Preparing for the GRE (2003).