APA online sourcesNote: Changes in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association are highlighted below
According to the sixth edition of the APA manual, when available, you should include the DOI (digital object identifier) for print and electronic sources in the reference entry. The DOI number is placed at the end of the entry without ending punctuation:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. doi:0000000/000000000000
When a DOI is not available, and a URL is included, do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis). When citing an entire website (when you are not quoting from, but rather making reference to an entire website), it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text (no entry in the reference list is necessary). In general, it is not necessary to include database (ERIC, JSTOR, OVID) information.
Website (view detail)
Bass, R. (1997). Technology & learning: A brief guide to interactive multimedia and the study of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.georgetown.edu/crossroads/mltmedia.html
Multi-Document Published on the Internet (view detail)
If the document is composed of multiple web pages, give the URL of the home page or entry page for the document. If no publication or "last modified" date is apparent, use n.d. in place of the publication date.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries. (2007, March 23). Introduction to Library Research. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu/instruct/tutorial/
Specific Chapter or Section of Document Published on the Internet (view detail)
Give chapter or section numbers (if available) in place of page numbers. Provide the URL that points to the first page of the chapter or section you are citing.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries. (2007, July 12). APA Citation Style. In Citing Information (section 3). Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu/instruct/citations/apa/index.html
E-Book (view detail)
When citing books or chapters only available online, the electronic retrieval statement replaces the publisher location and name.
Wilson, T. L., Rohlfs, K. & Hüttemeister, S. (2009). Tools of radio astronomy [SpringerLink version]. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-85122-6
Article from a Scholarly Journal, Retrieved from an Online Database (view detail)
Dorman, S. M. (1997). Video and computer games: Effect on children and implications for health education. Journal of School Health, 67(4), 133-138. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?action=interpret&v=2.1&u=unc_main&it=JIourl&issn=0022-4391&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1
Full-text Newspaper Article with No Author Given, Retrieved from an Online Database (view detail)
Provide the URL of the newspaper home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs.
Don't even think about turning here. (2002, October 3). The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor (view detail)
If the online version refers to an existing print edition, include the edition number of the print version after the title.
Obsequious. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from
Motion Picture (view detail)
For a motion picture, the first executive producer and the first director should be listed as the responsible parties. If one of these parties fulfilled multiple creative roles in the film, all such roles should be listed. If credits for director and producer are not available, provide the name of the individual or organization most responsible for the work.
Hardy, J. (Producer), & Brest, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Gigli [Motion picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures.
Software (view detail)
Do not italicize the names of software, programs, or languages. Include the version number (if any) in parentheses immediately after the title. Also, provide the location and name of the organization that produced the work (if applicable).
Adobe Creative Suite 3 (Web Standard) [Computer software]. San Jose, CA: Adobe Systems Incorporated.
NOTE: For the following three entries, Provide the author's full name (if available) in the form of last name followed by first initials. If only a screen name is available, provide the screen name in place of the author. Include the exact date of the posting followed by the subject line of the message or "thread." Also, if available, provide the name of the list to which the message was posted if this information is not already included in the URL.
Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group (view detail)
Adams, P. (2009, November 12). Re: A turning point for eminent domain? [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/12/a-turning-point-for-eminent-domain/?scp=2&sq=room%20for%20debate&st=cse.
Blog post (view detail)
Miko. (2009, November 16). Re: The way we were [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.metafilter.com/86709/The-Way-we-Were
YouTube / Video blog post (view detail)
EduFactory2009. (2007, March 31). Stanley Aronowitz interview part I [video file]. Retrieved from
Images From A Website/Image Database (view detail)
Scott, William Bell (Artist). (1861) Incoming Tide on the Northumberland Coast [Painting]. Chapel Hill, NC; Ackland Art Museum. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from http://www.ackland.org