Chicago: Online Text

Below are examples of citations as they may appear in a reference list. The examples are meant to be illustrative and do not encompass every possible situation. A few points to keep in mind:

  • Online versions of print materials are cited identically to their print counterparts, with one exception. For online materials, the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), or URL if a DOI is not available, is appended to the citation following the citation's final period.
  • Unlike other citation styles, Chicago style does not require the listing of an access date for formally published electronic sources. An access date should only be includded if there is no date of publication or revision and should immediately precede the DOI or URL when present. Turabian style, on the other hand, does require an access date.
  • For electronic sources that are updated often and do not have a publication date indicated, include the "Last modified" or other revision date when available (this is often applicable to websites or wikis).
  • If information normally included in a citation is missing, unknown, or not provided, that information should be omitted from the citation.
  • If a URL or DOI does not fit on one line of your bibligraphy and has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a preiod, a comma, a hyphen, an underline, a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand (&). Such breaks help to signal that the URL or DOI has been carried over to the next line.
  • A period is always placed at the end of a citation, even if the last element of the citation is a URL.

For general guidelines on citing electronic sources, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, sections 14.4-14.12. Citation rules for electronic sources appear under the relevant source types (e.g. books, periodicals, etc.). Consult with a reference librarian for additional assistance.

Website (view detail)

Google. 2009. "Google Privacy Policy." http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

Article from a Scholarly Journal, Retrieved from an Online Database (view detail)

Rathgeb, Jody. 1997. "Taking the heights." Civil War Times Illustrated 36 (6): 26-32, Academic Search Premier (9185).

Article from an Online Journal (view detail)

Reid, P. H. 2001. "The decline and fall of the British country house library." Libraries & Culture 36 (2): 345-366. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/libraries_and_culture/v036/36.2reid.html.

Full Text Newspaper Article, Retrieved from an Online Database (view detail)

Hedges, Chris. 2000. "When armies of conquest marched in, so did saints." New York Times, February 12, LexisNexis Academic.

Article from an Online Newspaper (view detail)

Kane, Dan and Jane Stancill. 2003. "UNC building projects advance." Raleigh News & Observer, July 15. http://www.news-observer.com/front/story/2694510p-2498221c.html.

Lecture or Presentation (view detail)

Haas, Stephanie. 2007. "Relational algebra 1." (lecture, Introduction to Database Concepts and Applications, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC).

DVD or Video (view detail)

Brest, Martin. 2003. Gigli. DVD. New York: Sony Home Entertainment.

Image from a Website/Image Database (view detail)

Monet, Claude. 1885. Meadow with Haystacks at Giverny, oil on canvas (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). ARTstor.