Chicago: Online Text

Below are examples of citations as they may appear in a bibliography. The examples are meant to be illustrative and do not encompass every possible situation. A few points to keep in mind:

  • Online versions of print materials are cited identically to their print counterparts with one exception. For online materials, the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), or URL if a DOI is not available, is appended to the citation following the citation's final period.
  • For electronic sources that are updated often and do not have a publication date indicated, include the "Last modified" or other revision date when available (this is often applicable to websites or wikis).
  • Unlike other citation styles, Chicago style does not require the listing of an access date for formally published electronic sources. An access date should only be included if there is no date of publication or revision and should immediately precede the DOI or URL when present. Turabian style, on the other hand, does require an access date.
  • If information normally included in a citation is missing, unknown, or not provided, that information should be omitted from the citation.
  • If a URL or DOI does not fit on one line of your bibliography and has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon (:) or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period (.), a comma (,), a hyphen (-), an underline (_), a question mark (?), a number sign (#), or a percent symbol (%); or before or after an equals sign (=) or an ampersand (&). Such breaks help to signal that the URL or DOI has been carried over to the next line.
  • A period is always placed at the end of a citation, even if the last element of the citation is a URL.

For general guidelines on citing electronic sources, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, sections 14.4-14.12. Citation rules for electronic sources appear under the relevant source types (e.g. books, periodicals, etc.). Consult with a reference librarian for additional assistance.

Website (view detail)

National Park Service. "Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site." Last modified June 2, 2011. http://www.nps.gov/malu/.

Article from a Scholarly Journal, Retrieved from an Online Database (view detail)

Rathgeb, Jody. "Taking the Heights." Civil War Times Illustrated 36, no. 6 (December 1997): 26-32, Academic Search Premier (9185).

Article from an Online Journal (view detail)

Reid, Peter H. "The Decline and Fall of the British Country House Library." Libraries & Culture 36, no. 2 (2001): 345-366. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/libraries_and_culture/v036 /36.2reid.html.

Article from a Newspaper, Retrieved from an Online Database (view detail)

Hedges, Chris. "When Armies of Conquest Marched In, So Did Saints." New York Times, February 12, 2000, LexisNexis Academic.

Article from the Online Version of a Newspaper (view detail)

Kane, Dan and Jane Stancill. "UNC Building Projects Advance: $491 Million Gets Initial House Nod." Raleigh News & Observer, July 15, 2003. http://www.news-observer.com/front/story/2694510p-2498221c.html.

DVD or Video (view detail)

Gigli. Directed by Martin Brest. New York: Sony Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD.

Lecture or Presentation (view detail)

Haas, Stephanie. "Relational Algebra I." Lecture in Introduction to Database Concepts and Applications at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, March 20, 2007.

Images from a Website/Image Database (view detail)

Monet, Claude. Meadow with Haystacks at Giverny, oil on canvas, 1885 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). ARTstor.