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Timelines


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1954

17 May 1954
Brown v. Board of Ed. ruling outlaws segregation in public schools

1955

17 September 1955
LeRoy Benjamin Frasier Jr., Ralph Frasier, and John Lewis Brandon become the first black undergrads to attend UNC-Chapel Hill

1 December 1955
Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Ala., bus

1958

Fall 1958
Town of Chapel Hill sets up Human Relations Commission

1960

1 February 1960
Four North Carolina A & T students sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro

28 February 1960
Students from Lincoln High School stage the first sit-in in Chapel Hill

April 1960
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee forms in Raleigh

8-9 May 1960
Martin Luther King Jr. speaks at Hargraves Center and at Hill Hall on campus

1961

9 January 1961
Picketing of Carolina and Varsity theaters begins

4 May 1961
Congress of Racial Equality sends out "Freedom Riders" across the South

1963

16 April 1963
Martin Luther King Jr. is arrested; while imprisoned he pens his "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

May 1963
Committee for Open Business forms in Chapel Hill

1 June 1963
Governor George Wallace vows to defy an injunction ordering integration of the University of Alabama

11 June 1963
Mayor's Committee on Integration recognizes that only an ordinance can force integration in all town businesses

25 June 1963
The North Carolina General Assembly passes the "Speaker Ban Law" -- generally considered a response to civil rights marches that were taking place in Raleigh

29 July 1963
34 people arrested at the Chapel Hill/Carrboro Merchant's Association sit-in

28 August 1963
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers "I Have a Dream" speech at March on Washington

22 November 1963
President John F. Kennedy is assassinated

December 1963
During three-week span of intense protesting, Chapel Hill police log 400 hours of overtime and arrest 75

1 December 1963
Protesters are doused with ammonia at sit-in at the Rock Pile

1964

12 January 1964
Chapel Hill Board of Aldermen rejects the proposed accommodations ordinance by a 4-2 vote

13 January 1964
CORE gives ultimatum that Chapel Hill has until February 1 to integrate fully

February 1964
Protesters run onto the court during a UNC-Wake Forest basketball game and human chains block cars after the game

March 1964
An eight-day Holy Week fast is held in front of the Franklin Street post office

April 1964
217 demonstrators brought to trial on nearly 1,500 charges; many begin active prison sentences

2 July 1964
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law

1965

10 August 1965
Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965

1968

4 April 1968
Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated


1940

28 June 1940
The Smith Act is passed, making it illegal to advocate the overthrow of any government in the United States

1947

12 March 1947
President Truman issues Executive Order 9838, which embraces the concept of "guilt by association," later used by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and Senator Joseph McCarthy to persecute Communists

1948

August 1948
HUAC investigates Alger Hiss for espionage

1950

9 February 1950
McCarthy claims to have a list of Communists working in the State Department

1963

May 1963
Civil rights protests in Raleigh intensify, with marches at the new Legislative Building and sit-ins at the Sir Walter Hotel (home to many legislators while in session)

21 June 1963
Jesse Helms, then an on-air editorialist for WRAL-TV, praises the Ohio legislature for proposing a bill to restrict speakers at their universities, suggesting that it "should also provide a lesson for the rest of us"

25 June 1963
The North Carolina General Assembly quickly passes the "Act to Regulate Visiting Speakers"

26 June 1963
The new "Speaker Ban law" is ratified

27 June 1963
Senator Luther Hamilton of Carteret County attempts to have the resolution recalled; his motion is defeated 25-19

22 October 1963
Faculty Council of UNC-Chapel Hill adopts a statement objecting to the bill

28 October 1963
Board of Trustees agrees to support the repeal or modification of the bill

22 November 1963
President John F. Kennedy is assassinated

1964

21 October 1964
Governor Terry Sanford appoints a special committee to review the law (the Medford Committee)

1965

8 January 1965
The Medford Committee concludes that amending the law is most practical

19 May 1965
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) indicates the Speaker Ban may threaten UNC's accreditation

24 June 1965
Governor Dan K. Moore announces the formation of the Britt Commission to study amending the law

5 November 1965
Britt Commission proposes a compromise, which will give the Board of Trustees power over the admission of campus speakers

12 November 1965
General Assembly amends the law in a special session

1 December 1965
With the Board of Trustees' power now restored, SACS rules that accreditation would continue

1966

21 January 1966
Students inform Chancellor Paul Sharp that they have invited Herbert Aptheker and Frank Wilkinson to speak

16 February 1966
J. Carlyle Sitterson takes office as Chancellor of UNC-Chapel Hill

28 February 1966
The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees adopts procedures whereby each constituent campus would make their own decisions about speakers

28 February 1966
Student leaders immediately present Sitterson with a request to allow Wilkinson and Aptheker to speak on campus

2 March 1966
Frank Wilkinson speaks across the stone wall that divides McCorkle Place and Franklin Street

9 March 1966
Herbert Aptheker speaks to 2,000 students seated across the same stone wall

14 March 1966
To set the stage for the court challenge, students make a second attempt to allow Aptheker and Wilkinson to speak on campus

31 March 1966
Sitterson denies the students' request; Student Body President Paul Dickson files papers in U.S. Middle District Court in Greensboro

1968

19 February 1968
A three-judge panel declares that the Speaker Ban is "unconstitutional because of vagueness"

1995

17 May 1995
Although virtually unenforceable for 27 years, the General Assembly finally repeals the Speaker Ban law

1965

21 February 1965
Malcolm X is shot to death in Harlem

11-17 August 1965
Race riots erupt in Watts, a black section of Los Angeles

1966

October 1966
The militant Black Panthers are founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale

1967

19 April 1967
Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), coins the phrase "black power" in a speech in Seattle

Fall 1967
The Black Student Movement (BSM) is formed at UNC-Chapel Hill

1968

16 February 1968
Following the slaying of three blacks by police in Orangeburg, S.C., the BSM stages a march and rally at the Franklin Street post office

4 April 1968
Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tenn.

9 April 1968
Protesting what they said was a lack of respect on the part of the University following the MLK murder, 90% of UNC black workers walk off the job

5 November 1968
Election of Governor Robert Scott

22 November 1968
Stokely Carmichael speaks at UNC-Chapel Hill to a crowd of 5,000

11 December 1968
The Black Student Movement presents its 23 demands to Chancellor J. Carlyle Sitterson

1969

24 January 1969
Chancellor Sitterson responds to the BSM's demands with a 19-page statement

23 February 1969
Foodworkers at UNC's Pine Room cafeteria walk off the job

24 February 1969
Most foodworkers and many other non-academic workers across campus join the strike

25 February 1969
Manning Hall set up as a de facto headquarters for the BSM and the striking workers; a soul food cafe opens there

4 March 1969
Fights break out among students in Lenoir Dining Hall; members of the BSM turn over tables and chairs in protest; Lenoir is closed

5 March 1969
Lenoir remains closed; President Friday and Chancellor Sitterson meet with Governor Scott to try to work out a solution

6 March 1969
Governor Scott sends highway patrolmen to reopen Lenoir in the morning

9 March 1969
Julius Chambers notifies the University that he will represent the striking workers

13 March 1969
Governor Scott sends in 75 highway patrolmen to evacuate the BSM from Manning Hall and to arrest students involved in the 4 March table-turning incident

18 March 1969
Highway patrol begins to leave campus

21 March 1969
Strike settlement announced

1 April 1969
Minimum wage for state employees is raised to $1.80/hour

9 April 1969
BSM students are given a fine and a two-year suspended sentence for table-turning incident

19 May 1969
SAGA Food Services assumes management of the campus meal service

August 1969
The University pays foodworkers a total of $180,000 in back wages

7 November 1969
250 out of 275 food service employees begin a second strike, claiming the settlement of the first was not being honored

9 December 1969
The second foodworkers strike ends

1962

12 January 1962
U.S. Army conducts first American combat missions against the Vietcong

1963

Spring 1963
Student Peace Union (SPU) forms at Carolina. Steering Committee includes John Dunne and Patrick Cusick

1964

7 August 1964
Three days after U.S.S. Maddox reports being attacked, President Johnson signs Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1965

15 May 1965
National teach-in on Vietnam War; UNC faculty organizes a forum

17 May 1965
NROTC cannon painted by two "non-current" SPU members

Fall 1965
Students for Victory in Vietnam forms to counter the peace groups on campus

October 1965
A fast is organized by SDS and SPU to raise money to help rebuild Cam Ne

1966

21 September 1966
SDS pickets the South Vietnamese ambassador, who was speaking in Memorial Hall

1967

February 1967
SDS pickets Vice President Humphrey speech in Memorial Hall

Summer 1967
Vietnam Summer - students and faculty pledge to spend the summer educating Americans about the war

1968

30-31 January 1968
Tet Offensive -- 37,000 Vietcong and 2,500 Americans killed -- turning point for Americans' support of the war

16 March 1968
My Lai massacre

18 March 1968
Protest of Dow Chemical (maker of napalm) job recruiter in Gardner Hall; 15 arrested

26 September 1968
A chapter of the Southern Student Organizing Committee forms on campus; 150 attend first meeting

1 October 1968
New University Conference forms on campus; includes 100 grad students and faculty

5 November 1968
Election night SSOC-organized "street disturbance" ends in the arrest of 7

16 November 1968
11 students arrested while handing out antiwar leaflets at Fort Bragg

23 November 1968
Two agents of the military's Criminal Investigation Division come to question students about UAWMF

December 1968
The Campus Y sponsors a debate between a Dow representative and Professor Lou Lipsitz

7 December 1968
A "Free Speech for GIs" march is organized by the UAWMF

1969

January 1969
The Y sponsors a lecture on "Saigon Political Prisoners"

8 July 1969
Board of Trustees adopts new policy on disruption

16-17 July 1969
The Institute of Government holds a conference on "The Campus Crisis"

September 1969
Chapel Hill Revolutionary Movement forms

15 October 1969
Vietnam Moratorium events are held at UNC and on campuses nationwide

1970

January 1970
Controversy over sale of the Protean Radish on campus; campus police seize copies of the newspaper

28 April 1970
Following news of the invasion of Cambodia, the Student Legislature passes a resolution calling for a strike

4 May 1970
Four students killed at Kent State University; campus police discover a fire in the AFROTC office in Caldwell annex

5 May 1970
Students begin striking; "disturbances" occur in several classroom buildings

6 May 1970
9,000 attend emergency meeting of the student body in Polk Place

7 May 1970
Faculty Council says it will allow individual arrangements to be made with students for completion of unfinished coursework

7 May 1970
Several hundred students sign a "Declaration of Independence," informing the administration that it had violated the trustees' disruption policy

12 May 1970
700 students and faculty members travel to Washington, D.C., to meet with North Carolina representatives

13 May 1970
Campus police discover a fire at 5:38 a.m. in the graduate students' lounge in Alumni Hall

15 May 1970
Approximately 250 people march from South Building to Town Hall

15-16 May 1970
Police receive reports of broken windows and red paint being thrown on campus buildings

17 May 1970
Campus police respond to an attempted arson call in the Administrative Data Processing computer center in Hanes Hall

18 May 1970
Chapel Hill Board of Aldermen passes a resolution commending "Students, Faculty, and Administration...for the sincere, vigorous, and non-violent expression of their dissent"

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