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Collection Number: 03474

Collection Title: Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms Papers, 1925-1963 (bulk 1936-1943)

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the section for more information.


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Size 11.5 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 9,200 items)
Abstract Delta Cooperative Farm, started in 1936 in the community of Hillhouse (later called Rochdale) in Bolivar County, Miss., and Providence Cooperative Farm, started in 1939 near Cruger in Holmes County, Miss., were attempts by Cooperative Farms, Inc., a philanthropically supported corporation, to help southern agricultural laborers out of their economic plight. The cooperatives were organized around four principles: efficiency in production and economy in finance through the cooperative principle, participation in building a socialized economy of abundance, inter-racial justice, and realistic religion as a social dynamic. To these ends, the Delta and Providence cooperatives were to pay African Americans and whites equal wages for work and provided social and other services, most of which were open to neighboring communities. These services included a cooperative store; a medical clinic, eventually run by physician David R. Minter; a credit union; a library; a community building; religious services; educational programs; summer work camps; and community institutes. In addition to growing cotton, agricultural operations eventually included a dairy farm, a beef farm, a pasteurizing plant, and a saw mill. Papers include correspondence of Sherwood Eddy, secretary-treasurer; Sam H. Franklin, director 1936-1943; and A. Eugene Cox, director after 1943. Major topics include agricultural issues and farm operations; fundraising and donations; interracial issues; member morale; poor conditions of southern sharecroppers; cooperative methods; staffing; medical issues; relations and tensions with surrounding communities; criticisms of the farms; and the establishment and impact of the various educational, social, and religious programs on the farms. Other topics include eviction and dire conditions of Arkansas sharecroppers following a strike, many of whom became members at Delta; the Rust cotton picker and plans to fund cooperatives with revenue from its sales; and criticisms of the farms' management techniques and member morale from trustees William R. Amberson and Blaine Treadway, among others, which ultimately led to an investigation conducted by the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union in May 1940. Also included are scattered financial material and other records; plans; issues of the farm publication, "The Co-op Call"; membership agreements; and letters from prospective members seeking placement on the farms. Prominent correspondents include Arthur Raper of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation; H. L. Mitchell and Howard Kester of the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union; Delta trustees Reinhold Niebuhr, John Rust, and William R. Amberson; David R. Minter; and various representatives of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Socialist Party, the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, the Cooperative League, the American Friends Service Committee, the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority, and the Young Women's Christian Association, among others. There is also some correspondence with Margaret Sanger regarding the Delta farm's interest in contraception. Other papers include incorporation materials, financial materials, organizational papers, meeting minutes, subject files, histories, ledgers, writings, medical reports, and clippings. Clippings include newspaper articles about a meeting held in Tchula, Miss., during which David Minter and A. Eugene Cox were asked by the community to leave Holmes County because they had been accused of teaching social equality between races on the farm.
Creator Delta Cooperative Farm (Hillhouse, Miss.)



Providence Plantation (Miss.)
Language English
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Restrictions to Access
No restrictions. Open for research.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the Delta and Providence Cooperative Farms Papers #3474, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Acquisitions Information
Received of A. Eugene Cox in March 1960, August 1962, and May 1963.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Historical Information

Delta Cooperative Farm, started in 1936 in the community of Hillhouse (later called Rochdale) in Bolivar County, Miss., and Providence Cooperative Farm, started in 1939 near Cruger in Holmes County, Miss., were attempts by a philanthropically supported corporation, Cooperative Farms, Inc., to help southern agricultural laborers out of their economic plight. The cooperatives were organized around four principles: efficiency in production and economy in finance through the cooperative principle, participation in building a socialized economy of abundance, inter-racial justice, and realistic religion as a social dynamic. To these ends, the Delta and Providence cooperatives were to pay African Americans and whites equal wages for work, and provided social and other services, most of which were open to neighboring communities. These services included a cooperative store; a medical clinic, eventually run by physician David R. Minter; a credit union; a library; a community building; religious services; educational programs, including a school for African American children; summer work camps for visiting students; and community institutes. In addition to growing cotton, agricultural operations eventually included a dairy farm, a beef farm, a pasteurizing plant, and a saw mill.

Delta Cooperative Farm was founded by missionary evangelist and author Sherwood Eddy, who served as secretary-treasurer, and Reverend Sam H. Franklin, director, 1936-1943. In addition to Franklin and Eddy, the original board of trustees included theologian Reinhold Niebuhr; John Rust, inventor of the cotton picking machine; and Professor William R. Amberson. Later trustees included Blaine Treadway, Charles S. Johnson, Arthur Raper, and Frederick Patterson. Most of the first member families on the farm were sharecroppers who lost work following the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933; many were also refugees from East Arkansas who were evicted during a strike in the mid-1930s. Interracial efforts on the farm primarily focused on establishing economic equality, as whites and African Americans worked together and were to be paid equally depending upon the amount and quality of work done. Living arrangements, schooling, and social affairs were segregated, while it appears that some religious services and the medical clinic were integrated. The farm was managed by a democratically elected council made up of five members, no more than three of whom could be of the same race, and was organized into a Producer's Cooperative and a Consumer's Cooperative. Delta was funded primarily through capital investments. Over time, members were to amortize the capital funds supplied by the board of trustees and would gradually gain control and ownership of the farm. The capital funds would then be used by the trustees as a revolving fund for the establishment of more cooperative farms.

Providence Cooperative Farm was established in 1938 in hopes that its better quality soil would bring in higher revenues for the project, as there were deficits at Delta for 1936 and 1937. The Delta farm was sold in December 1942 and operations were consolidated at Providence due to better farming prospects and the number of familes at Delta who had left for service in World War II. The consolidation brought the first African American members to Providence, which had been started with six white families from Delta. Providence was organized into a Producer's Cooperative and the Providence Extension Farm. The Producer's Cooperative handled the bulk of the farming, while the Providence Extension Farm, whose earnings funded social work and other services offered at Providence, handled dairy and beef herds and the farming of land that was not part of the Producer's Cooperative. Additionally, there was the Providence Cooperative Association, an organization of African Americans living in and near Providence aimed at community improvement along religious, educational, economic, and public health lines. Educational institutes were held under the auspices of the Providence Cooperative Association, which brought in leaders from institutions such as the Tuskeegee Institute and the Farm Security Administration to teach on topics such as farming methods, community health, and civic problems. In May 1943, Franklin left Providence to serve as a naval chaplain to Asia, and A. Eugene Cox, the farm's accountant, took over as director.

In 1946, Delta Foundation Inc., was organized as a non-profit organization primarily for educational work. In 1950, Sam Franklin, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Charles S. Johnson resigned from the Providence Cooperative Farm board of trustees and a new board of directors was formed. On this new board were A. Eugene Cox; Lindsey Cox, registered nurse at the medical clinic; David Minter; and Mary Sue Minter. By 1950, cotton had become unprofitable at Providence, and from 1950 to 1956, operations were almost entirely centered on education and medical work. Efforts to provide educational opportunities on a broad geographic scale, which were primarily funded through cash rent and the sale of timber, included summer camps, farmer's institutes, the consumer's cooperative, the credit union, and the medical program. The political climate of the early and mid-1950s, especially with regard to McCarthyism, increased tensions between the Providence Cooperative Farm and the surrounding communities, as Providence was accused of being a communist operation that taught social equality between races. Probably due in part to these tensions, cooperative efforts at the farm ceased around 1956 and portions of the land were sold to the individual member families.

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Sample item:

Letter from Harvey Barton, an Arkansas sharecropper, to H. L. Mitchell, seeking help in obtaining work on the Delta Cooperative Farm, 29 April 1936 (see folder 5).

letter

Papers include correspondence of Sherwood Eddy, secretary-treasurer; Reverend Sam H. Franklin, director 1936-1943; and A. Eugene Cox, director after 1943. Correspondence is chiefly with and about patrons, trustees, founders, social organizations, educators, religious groups, and other interested parties. Major topics include agricultural issues; fundraising (see especially 1936-1937 materials); donations of money, books, clothing, and other items; interracial issues; member morale; farm operations and conditions; cooperative methods; staffing; poor conditions of southern sharecroppers; medical issues, especially in handling childbirth, malaria, and other illnesses; relations and tensions with surrounding communities, and the establishment and impact of educational, social, and religious programs, cooperative stores, a medical clinic, a credit union, a library, summer work camps for students, and educational institutes for African Americans. Other topics include the eviction and dire conditions of Arkansas sharecroppers following a strike, many of whom became members at Delta; the Rust cotton picker and plans to fund cooperatives with revenue from its sales; and criticisms of the farms' management techniques and member morale from trustees William R. Amberson and Blaine Treadway, among others, which ultimately led to an investigation conducted by the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union in May 1940. Also included are scattered financial material (see especially annual December and January materials); plans; periodic updates on the state of the farm to the Board of Trustees; issues of the farm publication, "The Co-op Call"; membership agreements; letters expressing general interest in the organization and requesting information; and letters from prospective members seeking placement on the farms (see especially 1936-1937). Frequent and prominent correspondents include Arthur Raper of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation; H. L. Mitchell and Howard Kester of the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union; Delta trustees Reinhold Niebuhr, John Rust, and William R. Amberson; David R. Minter; and various representatives of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Socialist Party, the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, the Cooperative League, the American Friends Service Committee, the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority, and the Young Women's Christian Association, among others. There is also some correspondence with Margaret Sanger regarding the Delta farm's interest in contraception. Note that the bulk of the papers are from 1936 to 1943.

Other papers include incorporation materials, by-laws, policies, a member's manual, and other organizational papers; minutes of the Cooperative Council meetings; subject files; histories; clippings, including collected newspaper articles about a meeting held in Tchula, Miss., during which David Minter and A. Eugene Cox were asked by the community to leave Holmes County because they had been accused of teaching social equality between races on the farm; ledgers; articles and other writings, chiefly by Sam Franklin and Sherwood Eddy; audits; tax returns; medical reports; financial reports; and other records of farm operations. Note that, like correspondence, these files are most complete for 1936-1943.

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Contents list

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1963.

About 6,400 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

Papers include correspondence of Sherwood Eddy, secretary-treasurer; Reverend Sam H. Franklin, director 1936-1943; and A. Eugene Cox, director after 1943. Correspondence is chiefly with and about patrons, trustees, founders, social organizations, educators, religious groups, and other interested parties. Major topics discussed throughout include agricultural issues; fundraising (see especially 1936-1937 materials); donations of money, books, clothing, and other items; interracial issues; member morale; farm operations and conditions; cooperative methods; staffing; poor conditions of southern sharecroppers; medical issues, especially in handling childbirth, malaria, and other illnesses; relations and tensions with surrounding communities; and the establishment and impact of educational, social, and religious programs, cooperative stores, a medical clinic, a credit union, a library, summer work camps for students, and educational institutes for African Americans. Also included are scattered financial material (see especially annual December and January materials); plans; periodic updates on the state of the farm to the Board of Trustees; issues of the farm publication, "The Co-op Call"; membership agreements; and incoming letters expressing general interest in the organization and requesting information. Frequent and prominent correspondents include Arthur Raper of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation; H. L. Mitchell and Howard Kester of the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union; Delta trustees Reinhold Niebuhr, John Rust, and William R. Amberson; David R. Minter; and various representatives of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Socialist Party, the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, the Cooperative League, the American Friends Service Committee, the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority, and the Young Women's Christian Association, among others. Note that the bulk of the papers represent the time period from 1936 to 1943.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937).

About 2,400 items.

Correspondence and related materials documenting the establishment of Delta Cooperative Farm and the first two operating years prior to the purchase of the Providence Cooperative Farm. In addition to topics included throughout, these materials discuss the eviction and dire conditions of Arkansas sharecroppers following a strike, many of whom became members at Delta (see especially 1936 material); the Rust cotton picker and plans to fund cooperatives with revenue from its sales; educational program planning; and dissatisfaction and general morale among farm members. Also included are letters from prospective members seeking placement on the farms, some correspondence with Margaret Sanger regarding the Delta farm's interest in contraception, a tentative plan of organization, deeds, membership agreements, and other organizational documents. Pre-1936 material contains items regarding cooperative communities generally, among other items.

Folder 1

Correspondence and other items, 1925-1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 1

Contains materials regarding cooperative colonies and community canneries, a copy of the original finding aid for this collection, and other items.

Folder 2

Correspondence, January-March 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 2

Includes "A Tentative Plan of Organization" and deeds.

Folder 3

Correspondence, April 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 3

Includes material regarding the John Rust cotton picker and plans to fund cooperatives with revenue from its sales.

Folder 4-5

Folder 4

Folder 5

Correspondence, May 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 4-5

Includes "Foundation Principles of the Delta Cooperative Farm."

Folder 6-8

Folder 6

Folder 7

Folder 8

Correspondence, June 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 6-8

Includes signed membership agreements; correspondence with the Y.W.C.A. regarding summer student volunteers, especially the Y.W.C.A.'s objection to the racial segregation of students while on the farm, and a document entitled "Brief digest of trip to Arkansas by James Myers June 2-10 in connection with cotton choppers strike."

Folder 9-10

Folder 9

Folder 10

Correspondence, July, 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 9-10

Includes the first issue of the Delta Cooperative Farm's publication "The Co-op Call." Subsequent issues are filed chronologically hereafter.

Folder 11-12

Folder 11

Folder 12

Correspondence, August 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 11-12

Includes correspondence with Margaret Sanger regarding the Delta Farm's interest in obtaining information about, and access to, contraception. Note that related material may be included elsewhere among correspondence.

Folder 13-14

Folder 13

Folder 14

Correspondence, September 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 13-14

Folder 15-16

Folder 15

Folder 16

Correspondence, October 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 15-16

Folder 17-18

Folder 17

Folder 18

Correspondence, November 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 17-18

Folder 19-20

Folder 19

Folder 20

Correspondence, December 1936 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 19-20

Includes material about dissatisfaction among farm members.

Folder 21-23

Folder 21

Folder 22

Folder 23

Correspondence, January 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 21-23

Includes material about the efforts of local planters to lure farm members to work for them by offering cash incentives.

Folder 24-26

Folder 24

Folder 25

Folder 26

Correspondence, February 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 24-26

Folder 27-29

Folder 27

Folder 28

Folder 29

Correspondence, March 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 27-29

Folder 30-32

Folder 30

Folder 31

Folder 32

Correspondence, Aril 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 30-32

Folder 33-34

Folder 33

Folder 34

Correspondence, May 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 33-34

Folder 35-36

Folder 35

Folder 36

Correspondence, June 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 35-36

Folder 37-39

Folder 37

Folder 38

Folder 39

Correspondence, July 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 37-39

Includes material about several farm members' refusal to chop cotton.

Folder 40-42

Folder 40

Folder 41

Folder 42

Correspondence, August 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 40-42

Folder 43-45

Folder 43

Folder 44

Folder 45

Correspondence, September 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 43-45

Folder 46-49

Folder 46

Folder 47

Folder 48

Folder 49

Correspondence, October 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 46-49

Includes material about prospective properties for a new farm.

Folder 50-52

Folder 50

Folder 51

Folder 52

Correspondence, November 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 50-52

Folder 53-55

Folder 53

Folder 54

Folder 55

Correspondence, December 1937 #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 53-55

Folder 56

Correspondence, 1937: Undated #03474, Subseries: "1.1. Correspondence and related materials, 1925-1937 (bulk 1936-1937)." Folder 56

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942.

About 3,600 items.

This material represents the Delta and Providence Cooperative farms from the purchase of the Providence farm in January 1938 to the sale of the Delta farm and Sam H. Franklin's stepping down as director in 1942. In addition to topics included throughout, these materials discuss fundraising for a new church and the hiring of a pastor for the African American community at Providence; arrangements to receive medical and dental services and clinics from the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority; tensions between farm members and with the local community; criticisms of the farms' management techniques and member morale from William R. Amberson and Blaine Treadway, among others, which ultimately led to an investigation conducted by the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union in May 1940; the formation of the Providence Cooperative Association; and educational institutes for African Americans held at the farm.

Folder 57-59

Folder 57

Folder 58

Folder 59

Correspondence, January 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 57-59

Folder 60-62

Folder 60

Folder 61

Folder 62

Correspondence, February 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 60-62

Folder 63-65

Folder 63

Folder 64

Folder 65

Correspondence, March 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 63-65

Folder 66-68

Folder 66

Folder 67

Folder 68

Correspondence, April 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 66-68

Folder 69-70

Folder 69

Folder 70

Correspondence, May 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 69-70

Folder 71-73

Folder 71

Folder 72

Folder 73

Correspondence, June 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 71-73

Folder 74-75

Folder 74

Folder 75

Correspondence, July 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 74-75

Folder 76-77

Folder 76

Folder 77

Correspondence, August 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 76-77

Folder 78-79

Folder 78

Folder 79

Correspondence, September 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 78-79

Folder 80-83

Folder 80

Folder 81

Folder 82

Folder 83

Correspondence, October 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 80-83

Folder 84-85

Folder 84

Folder 85

Correspondence, November 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 84-85

Folder 86-88

Folder 86

Folder 87

Folder 88

Correspondence, December and undated 1938 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 86-88

Folder 89-92

Folder 89

Folder 90

Folder 91

Folder 92

Correspondence, January 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 89-92

Folder 93-94

Folder 93

Folder 94

Correspondence, February 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 93-94

Folder 95-96

Folder 95

Folder 96

Correspondence, March 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 95-96

Folder 97-98

Folder 97

Folder 98

Correspondence, April 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 97-98

Folder 99-100

Folder 99

Folder 100

Correspondence, May 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 99-100

Folder 101-102

Folder 101

Folder 102

Correspondence, June 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 101-102

Folder 103-104

Folder 103

Folder 104

Correspondence, July 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 103-104

Folder 105

Correspondence, August 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 105

Folder 106

Correspondence, September 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 106

Folder 107

Correspondence, October 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 107

Folder 108

Correspondence, November 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 108

Folder 109-110

Folder 109

Folder 110

Correspondence, December and undated 1939 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 109-110

Folder 111

Correspondence, January 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 111

Folder 112

Correspondence, February 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 112

Folder 113

Correspondence, March 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 113

Folder 114

Correspondence, April 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 114

Folder 115

Correspondence, May 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 115

Includes material regarding an investigation conducted on the farm by the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union.

Folder 116

Correspondence, June 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 116

Folder 117

Correspondence, July 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 117

Folder 118

Correspondence, August 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 118

Folder 119

Correspondence, September 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 119

Folder 120

Correspondence, October 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 120

Folder 121

Correspondence, November 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 121

Folder 122

Correspondence, December 1940 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 122

Folder 123

Correspondence, January 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 123

Folder 124

Correspondence, February 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 124

Folder 125

Correspondence, March 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 125

Folder 126

Correspondence, April 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 126

Folder 127-128

Folder 127

Folder 128

Correspondence, May 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 127-128

Folder 129-130

Folder 129

Folder 130

Correspondence, June 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 129-130

Folder 131

Correspondence, July 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 131

Folder 132

Correspondence, August 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 132

Includes material regarding complaints from white members of Providence Farm about tension with other whites in the surrounding community, claiming that they (the white members) were looked down upon because of the cooperative's involvement with and outreach to the local African American community.

Folder 133-134

Folder 133

Folder 134

Correspondence, September 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 133-134

Folder 135-136

Folder 135

Folder 136

Correspondence, October 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 135-136

Folder 137

Correspondence, November 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 137

Includes "A Brief Report of an Educational Institute for Negroes."

Folder 138-139

Folder 138

Folder 139

Correspondence, December and undated 1941 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 138-139

Folder 140

Correspondence, January 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 140

Folder 141

Correspondence, February 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 141

Folder 142

Correspondence, March 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 142

Folder 143

Correspondence, April 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 143

Folder 144

Correspondence, May 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 144

Folder 145

Correspondence, June 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 145

Folder 146-147

Folder 146

Folder 147

Correspondence, July 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 146-147

Folder 148

Correspondence, August 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 148

Folder 149

Correspondence, September 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 149

Folder 150

Correspondence, October 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 150

Folder 151

Correspondence, November 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 151

Folder 152

Correspondence, December 1942 #03474, Subseries: "1.2. Correspondence and related materials, 1938-1942." Folder 152

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated.

About 400 items.

This material documents the Providence Cooperative Farm after the sale of the Delta Cooperative Farm in January 1943 and after the change in directorship from Sam H. Franklin to A. Eugene Cox in May 1943. Note that the records for this time period are significantly less complete than for previous years. The majority of the correspondence is from or to Cox and Sherwood Eddy and discusses the consolidation at Providence Farm; operations on the farm; the incorporation of the Delta Foundation Inc. in 1949; Franklin's enlistment as a naval chaplain, including a few scattered letters from Franklin describing his experiences; the formation of a new board of directors in 1950; and financial troubles with the cooperative's credit union (see especially 1956 material). Also included is a 1963 letter from Cox describing the later years of the Providence Cooperative Farm (1950-1956) in response to a request made by a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill master's student. The letter especially addresses gaps in the organizational history not explained in the sparse records available from that time period.

Folder 153

Correspondence, January 1943 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 153

Folder 154

Correspondence, February 1943 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 154

Folder 155

Correspondence, March 1943 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 155

Folder 156

Correspondence, April 1943 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 156

Folder 157

Correspondence, May-December 1943 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 157

Folder 158

Correspondence, 1944 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 158

Folder 159

Correspondence, 1945-1946 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 159

Folder 160

Correspondence, 1947 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 160

Folder 161

Correspondence, 1948 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 161

Folder 162

Correspondence, 1949 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 162

Folder 163

Correspondence, 1950-1952 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 163

Folder 164

Correspondence, 1953-1963 #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 164

Folder 165

Correspondence and fragments, undated #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 165

Folder 172

Letters, undated #03474, Subseries: "1.3. Correspondence and related materials, 1943-1963 and undated." Folder 172

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Other papers, 1927-1955.

About 2,800 items.

Includes incorporation materials, by-laws, policies, a member's manual, and other organizational papers; minutes of the Cooperative Council meetings; subject files; histories; clippings, including collected newspaper articles about a meeting held in Tchula, Miss., during which David Minter and A. Eugene Cox were asked by the community to leave Holmes County because they had been accused of teaching social equality between races on the farm; ledgers; articles and other writings, chiefly by Sam H. Franklin and Sherwood Eddy; audits; tax returns; medical reports; financial reports; and other records of farm operations. Note that, like correspondence, these files are most complete for 1936-1943.

Folder 166

Organization papers: Policies and proposals #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 166

Folder 167

Organization papers: Member's Manual #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 167

Folder 168

Organization papers: Incorporation papers, by-laws, and constitution #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 168

Folder 169

Organization papers: Revisions of plans #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 169

Folder 170-171

Folder 170

Folder 171

Organization papers: Undated #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 170-171

Folder 173

Programs, notices, and schedules #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 173

Folder 174

Songs #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 174

Folder 175

Mailing lists #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 175

Folder 176

Health Department and State Agricultural Extension Service #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 176

Folder 177

Printed items received #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 177

Folder 178

Sherwood Eddy: Undated articles and undated correspondence #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 178

Includes a copy of the pamphlet, "A Door of Opportunity."

Folder 179

Medical Clinic #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 179

Folder 180

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, April-June 1936 (fomerly Volume 1) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 180

Folder 181

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, April-December 1937 (fomerly Volume 2) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 181

Folder 182

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, May-December 1937 (fomerly Volumes 3a and 3b) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 182

Folder 184

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, December 1937-February 1939 (fomerly Volume 4b) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 184

Folder 183

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, 1938-1939 (fomerly Volume 4a) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 183

Folder 187

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, 1939 (scattered) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 187

Folder 185

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, February 1939-May 1940 (fomerly Volume 5) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 185

Folder 186

Cooperative Council meeting minutes, 1941-1942 (fomerly Volume 6) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 186

Folder 188

"Early years of the Delta Cooperative Farm and the Providence Cooperative Farm," by Sam H. Franklin #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 188

Folder 189

Articles #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 189

Topics include cooperatives, education, and agriculture, among others.

Folder 190

Sherwood Eddy articles, 1947-1949 #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 190

Folder 191

Articles about Delta and Providence Farms #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 191

Primarily includes writings by Sam H. Franklin and others affiliated with the farms, both published and unpublished.

Folder 192

Undated articles #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 192

Includes a postcard, undated, depicting workers on the Delta Cooperative Farm. Also included are scattered writings and letters on education, agriculture, cooperatives, and other topics.

Folder 193-194

Folder 193

Folder 194

Weather Reports, 1927, 1938-1939 #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 193-194

Folder 195

Tax returns, 1937-1942 #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 195

Folder 196

Tax returns, 1943-1955 #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 196

Folder 197-200

Folder 197

Folder 198

Folder 199

Folder 200

Clippings #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 197-200

Topics include the Delta and Providence Cooperative farms; agricultural, medical, economic, and medical issues in the South; and the Rust cotton picker, among others. Of note are collected newspaper articles, 1955, about a meeting held in Tchula, Miss., during which David Minter and A. Eugene Cox were asked by the community to leave Holmes County because they had been accused of teaching social equality between races on the farm (see folder 198).

Folder 198-204

Folder 198

Folder 199

Folder 200

Folder 201

Folder 202

Folder 203

Folder 204

Audits, 1936-1953 #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 198-204

Folder 205-217

Folder 205

Folder 206

Folder 207

Folder 208

Folder 209

Folder 210

Folder 211

Folder 212

Folder 213

Folder 214

Folder 215

Folder 216

Folder 217

Accounts: Financial and medical, 1936-1941 and undated #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 205-217

Folder 218

Stock certificates (mostly blank), 1936 (fomerly Volume 7) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 218

Folder 219

Reports, 1937-1940 (fomerly Volume 8) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 219

Includes medical, agricultural, financial, and other reports on farm operations.

Folder 220

Ledger, 1939 (fomerly Volume 9) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 220

Pages of unidentified ledger showing columns of stamped dates and figures listed underneath a row of letters (typically A, A+, B, B+, C, D, etc.) with a name, probably members, written on each page. Possibly used to record amounts and grades of cotton grown by members.

Folder 203

Cashbook, 1940-1941 (fomerly Volume 10) #03474, Series: "2. Other papers, 1927-1955." Folder 203

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Processing Information

Processed by: SHC staff and Jessica Sedgwick, September 2008

Encoded by: Jessica Sedgwick, September 2008

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