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Collection Number: 03822

Collection Title: W.C. George Papers, 1904-1971

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the FAQ section for more information.


Portions of this collection have been digitized as part of "Content, Context, and Capacity: A Collaborative Large-Scale Digitization Project on the Long Civil Rights Movement in North Carolina." The project was made possible by funding from the federal Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS) under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA), as administered by the State Library of North Carolina, a division of the Department of Cultural Resources. This collection was rehoused and a summary created with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The finding aid was created with support from NC ECHO.

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Size 13.5 feet of linear shelf space (approximately 4800 items)
Abstract Wesley Critz George was professor of histology and embryology and chair of the Anatomy Department, University of North Carolina Medical School, and an internationally recognized researcher on the genetics of race. Early items relate to George's family and early career. Materials relating to George's theories on the genetic basis of "racial inferiority" begin in 1944. There are also letters documenting George's disputes with religious leaders, particularly at the Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, N.C., about racial mixing in churches, and George's disapproval of the liberal tendencies of Frank Porter Graham and Howard W. Odum at UNC. After the 1954 Brown decision, George's fight against school integration escalated, reaching its height in 1955-1957, when George was active in the Patriots of North Carolina, Inc. Many materials, 1858-1963, relate to the North Carolina Defenders of States' Rights, which picked up the anti-integration banner after the Patriots' demise. George's activities in I. Beverly Lake's unsuccessful North Carolina gubernatorial campaign are reflected in materials dated 1958- 1960. Items, 1959-1963, document George's interest in race problems in other countries and in the issue of academic freedom on college campuses. Correspondents include Carleton S. Coon, James P. Dees, Henry E. Garrett, Luther Hodges, R. Carter Pittman, Carleton Putnam, Clayton Rand, and Archibald Roosevelt. There are also a considerable number of letters and other items George received from individuals and organizations with extremist ideas on race relations. A scattering of family letters and a small number of items relating to George's tenure at UNC are also included. Writings by George relate to academic freedom, civil rights, genetics and race, and communism. Also included are writings by others on race and other topics, notes, clippings, biographical materials, genealogical materials relating to the Critz and Dalton families, and a few family photographs.
Creator George, W. C. (Wesley Critz), 1888-1982.
Language English
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Restrictions to Access
No restrictions. Open for research.
Copyright Notice
Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Preferred Citation
[Identification of item], in the W.C. George Papers #3822, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Acquisitions Information
Received from Wesley Critz George of Chapel Hill, N.C., 1969-1972.
Sensitive Materials Statement
Manuscript collections and archival records may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations, the North Carolina Public Records Act (N.C.G.S. § 132 1 et seq.), and Article 7 of the North Carolina State Personnel Act (Privacy of State Employee Personnel Records, N.C.G.S. § 126-22 et seq.). Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill assumes no responsibility.
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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection; the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Biographical Information

Wesley Critz George was born on 28 August 1888 in Yadkin County, N.C., the son of Thomas Miller (b. 1852) and Mary Critz George. George's father had been a school teacher in Courtney, N.C., until he moved the family to Missouri, where he opened a hardware store. Around 1900, the family moved back to Yadkin County, where they farmed on 160 acres of land and built a private school. The school was soon given up, however, because there were few people in the neighborhood who could afford to pay tuition. After a brief tenure as principal of a school in Elkin, N.C., George's father bought a newspaper and printing business there. He operated these businesses until around 1920, when poor health forced him into retirement.

George's formal education began in the family's private school and continued in public schools in Missouri and Elkin. By the time he reached the University of North Carolina in 1907, George had already taught public school for a year in Cabarrus County, N.C. While a student at UNC, George worked in the University's print shop, setting English and Greek type while studying classics. Entering graduate school at UNC, however, George switched to the sciences, earning an A.M. degree in 1912 and a Ph.D. in 1918.

When a hernia kept George out of active service during World War I, he accepted a graduate fellowship with embryologist E. G. Compton at Princeton. He later served as part of a neurological study team at Walter Reed General Hospital in Washington, D.C. After the war, George held short-term teaching positions at several colleges until 1920, when he returned to UNC as associate professor of histology and embryology in the Medical School, specializing in embryology and comparative hematology. Much of his research centered on blood studies of tunicates and molluscs. In 1924, he became full professor and, in 1940, head of the Department of Anatomy. He became professor emeritus in 1961.

George married Wilma Kirk Green of Monroe, N.C., in 1926. The couple had one daughter, Patricia Ann. After a long illness, George died on 29 October 1982 in Southern Pines, N.C.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Scope and Content

Materials, 1904-1940, are chiefly letters from relatives and friends, largely relating to George's career choices that eventually led him to a position in the Anatomy Department of the Medical School at the University of North Carolina. Items relating to race issues begin in 1944 and include letters about race and genetics and about George's disputes with religious leaders, particularly at the Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, about their "liberal" stands on race mixing. There are also letters documenting George's general disapproval of the thinking and activities of President Frank Porter Graham and sociologist Howard W. Odum at UNC.

Letters from individuals and newsletters from organizations intent on maintaining separation of the races begin around 1951. After the 1954 Brown decision, George's fight against school integration escalated, reaching its height in 1955-1957, when George was active in the Patriots of North Carolina, Inc. In these years, George issued and widely disseminated a large number of writings and speeches on racial issues. Many materials, 1958-1963, relate to the North Carolina Defenders of States' Rights, and its head, James P. Dees, rector of Trinity Episcopal Church, Statesville, N.C., and later a founding member of the Anglican Orthodox Church of North America. George's activities in I. Beverly Lake's unsuccessful North Carolina gubernatorial campaign are documented in materials dated 1958-1960. There are also materials, 1959-1963, that document George's interest in race issues in other countries, particularly in South Africa and Rhodesia. Beginning around 1960, other materials show George's thinking on the issue of academic freedom, particularly as it related to free speech on UNC campuses. Only a few items relate directly to the 1965 Speaker Ban controversy.

In 1961, George issued "Race, Heredity, and Civilization", and, in 1962, The Biology of the Race Problem, which was commissioned by Governor John Patterson of Alabama. Letters and reviews relating to these publications document the dissemination of George's ideas on racial differences based on genetics. There are also items, beginning in March 1957 and continuing into 1967, relating to George's testimony on genetics and race in the Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education school integration case.

Writings by George are sorted into the following categories: academic freedom; civil rights, including school integration; genetics and race; and miscellaneous, including the I. Beverly Lake campaign, international race issues, and communism. Writings by others are grouped as follows: civil rights, including school integration; genetics and race; and miscellaneous, including international race issues and communism.

Also included are George's notes on various topics, including bibliographic references for some of his works; clippings on race and related topics; biographical items; genealogical materials relating to the Critz and Dalton families; and a few family photographs.

Throughout the collection, there are letters and other items from individuals and organizations with extremists ideas on race relations. There is also a scattering of family letters and of items relating to George's tenure at UNC. The volume of materials drops off significantly after 1964. Some duplication of materials may be found, due, in most cases, to George's tendency to borrow from himself as he wrote articles and speeches for different occasions and purposes.

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Contents list

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series Quick Links

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 1. Correspondence and Related Items, 1904-1971 and undated.

3,550 items.

Arrangement: chronological.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.1. 1904-1940.

About 150 items.

Correspondents are chiefly relatives and friends. In 1908, there is a typed transcription of a letter from Roan Critz, former slave of Haman and Elizabeth Critz to Mrs. T. M. George about the death of her mother. In 1917, there are letters relating to George's desire to attend officers' training camp. Documents show that, when a hernia blocked his way to this goal, George accepted an assistantship at Princeton. Later, he became a private in the Medical Crops and was stationed at Walter Reed General Hospital in Washington, D.C., where he was a member of a team investigating neurological issues.

Letters from 1919 show that George was teaching at the University of Georgia. In 1920, after a brief flirtation with a position at the University of Tennessee Medical School, George began teaching and conducting research at the Anatomy Department of the Medical School at the University of North Carolina. From 1921 to 1940, there are a small number of letters about UNC administrative issues and a few relating to reunions of the UNC Class of 1911. In 1940, there are several letters congratulating George on becoming head of the Anatomy Department.

Throughout this period, there are scattered letters from relatives about routine family affairs, and, in 1926, there is a series of letters about a financial settlement relating to a mortgage note. No letters relate to George's courtship of or 1926 marriage to Wilma Kirk Green of Monroe, N.C.

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, a few letters from George's friend E. L. Mark, director of Harvard's Bermuda Biological Station for Research, touch on biological issues, and, in the 1930s, a few items relate to blood studies conducted by George.

Folder 1

1904-1917 #03822, Subseries: "1.1. 1904-1940." Folder 1

Folder 2

1918 #03822, Subseries: "1.1. 1904-1940." Folder 2

Folder 3

1919-1929 #03822, Subseries: "1.1. 1904-1940." Folder 3

Folder 4

1930-1940 #03822, Subseries: "1.1. 1904-1940." Folder 4

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.2. 1944-1954.

About 175 items.

Very scattered family letters continue, but most items relate to racial issues, particularly arguments against race mixing (or race amalgamation, as it was sometimes called) on the basis of genetics. The first letter in this series sets the tone for the remainder of the collection. In his 23 March 1944 letter to Rev. Charles M. Jones of Chapel Hill, George wrote, "The presence in this country of the white race and the black race in large numbers presents a problem which is, to my mind, the most fundamental problem facing the country. ... In attempting to break down the barriers against social intermingling of the two races you are, I believe, doing a great disservice to the negro and incalculable harm to the white race and the civilization of America. There may be those who do not object to looking forward to an America populated by a nation of mulattoes, but that is not the future for my country that I anticipate with pleasure." The second letter, dated 24 May 1944 and addressed to Howard W. Odum, sociologist at UNC who also bred prize cattle, amplified the theme of race mixing, giving it the scientific bent that is central to George's work in genetics: "You are a breeder of fine cattle, and know something about genetics. And yet according to newspaper accounts and local reports you are promoting public policies the ultimate results of which would be to do to the white race in America the sort of thing that would be done to your Jersey herd if the state were to require you to incorporate into your herd the sorriest scrub bull in North America. I don't understand."

From the mid-1940s through the early 1950s, there are many letters from George to various church leaders, particularly Rev. Jones and Rev. David W. Yates, rector of the Chapel of the Cross, Chapel Hill, N.C., about interracial activities, both documented and alleged, in Chapel Hill churches and elsewhere.

In an 19 April 1947 letter to UNC President Frank Porter Graham, George cited one of his first public statements on race mixing, quoting his own 1933 letter protesting the decision to admit Jews at UNC "without regard to race." In the quoted letter, George had written, "I wish it might never be necessary to direct any restrictive measure against Jews or any other race, but it may be necessary to do so in order to protect another race or racial culture." In an undated 1950 letter to Willis Smith, George outlined his objections to Graham's U.S. senatorial candidacy.

In 1951, George complained to UNC President Gordon Gray about the alleged indoctrination of UNC co-eds by such organizations as the Federal Council of Churches that "stands for racial brotherhood." Also in 1951 and continuing through 1953, there are materials relating to George's tenure as president of the North Carolina Academy of Sciences. These are chiefly routine organizational materials and items relating to the Symposium on Genetics and Contemporary Problems, which George orchestrated for the May 1952 annual meeting.

In 1954, spurred by the Supreme Court's Brown decision, George wrote articles against school integration and circulated a petition in Orange County, which, according to a summary and copies of actual signed petitions filed with the undated 1954 materials, was sent to Governor Luther Hodges and state legislators in support of "...a policy of continued separation of white and negro children in schools [that] had its origin in a desire to strengthen the hands of our legal representatives who would protect us from racial deterioration." In November and December 1954, there are many letters of support for this petition, which ultimately was sent to Hodges with about 5,730 signatures.

A 2 December 1954 letter to Mr. French contains a good summary of how school integration related to George's genetic "proof" of the necessity of racial segregation: "Briefly, my position is this: Bringing the two sexes of the two races together in more intimate social and semi social relations, as in schools, during childhood and young adulthood promotes the illicit and legitimate crossing of blood. This in the course of time will result in the destruction of the white and colored races and the substitution of a mulatto race. Reproduction in humans follows the laws of heredity that are known for animals and for humans. Consequently, the resulting blend of races would be a blend of the physical, intellectual and creative qualities of the two races. That would be socially bad because: All the evidence that we have indicates that the negro races [are] on the average definitely below the white races in intellectual ability and creativeness. ... We can't afford to take a chance on lowering the quality of our race and destroying our civilization."

Beginning around 1951, there are newsletters and other mailings from various individuals and organizations. Many of these items graphically portray hatred of African-Americans, Jews, and others. A large portion of these materials focus on alliances, alleged or real, between white women and African-American men (e.g., many reproductions of photographs of Ava Gardner and Sammy Davis, Jr.), while others concentrate on showing African-Americans in a negative light (e.g., drawings filed with undated 1954 materials). Included are materials from a few states' rights leagues and citizens' councils. There are also materials from the more scholarly American Eugenics Society and the occasional misdirected piece from the NAACP.

Folder 5

1944-1950 #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 5

Folder 6

1951 #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 6

Folder 7

1952 #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 7

Folder 8

1953 #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 8

Folder 9

1954 January-October #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 9

Folder 10

1954 November #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 10

Folder 11

1954 December #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 11

Folder 12

1954 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.2. 1944-1954." Folder 12

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.3. 1955-1957.

About 1,000 items.

Materials relating to the school segregation petition continue; the petition itself appears to have been forwarded to Governor Hodges in late January 1955, although signed copies of the petition were returned to George well into 1955. The volume of newsletters and other items from individuals and organizations escalates considerably during this period. Among the groups represented are the Association for Preservation of the White Race, the Federation for Constitutional Government, the American Society for the Preservation of State Government and Racial Integrity, the National Association for the Advancement of White People, the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties, White Men Incorporated, and many states' rights leagues and citizens' councils. There is also some material from the American Eugenics Society.

The Patriots of North Carolina, Inc., with George as its first president, is the most important and most heavily documented organization during this period. Based in Greensboro, N.C., the group was organized in 1954, but did not really become active until 1955. The Patriots' goals, as stated in the 1955 charter and other literature, were: "...to maintain the purity and culture of the white race and Anglo-Saxon institutions; to promote the peace, domestic tranquility and the best interest and general welfare of all citizens; to encourage and promote friendly racial relations and racial peace and good will; [and] to promote the value of maintaining the existing social structure in North Carolina in which two distinct races heretofore have lived as separate groups, and the value of educating the different races in separate schools." Most 1956 items relate to the Patriots, including a great many filed with the undated 1956 items. The group, however, was short-lived. In 1956, there are many documents relating to questionable financial practices of board members, and, by 1957, letters show that George had resigned from the board, stating that the Patriots were more concerned with fighting among themselves than working towards the organization's goals. Also in 1957, documents show that George became dissatisfied with the American Eugenics Society over the election of Montague Cobb and Bentley Glass to the board of directors.

During this period, there continue to be materials that demonstrate support for George's theories, reveal George's hostility towards the "liberals" with whom he lived and worked in Chapel Hill and towards members of various religious organizations, and document the constant barrage of writings and speeches on racial issues that he produced and widely disseminated. Many who were sent copies of George's writings politely acknowledged receipt without stating their opinion of the content, but some prominent individuals were more friendly. In a letter, dated 11 August 1955, for example, North Carolina Governor Luther Hodges wrote that he and George appeared to agree on Hodges's plan for voluntary school segregation. In a 2 September 1955 follow-up letter, Hodges asked George, "Have you any specific ideas as to what we can and ought to do if the Negroes do not accept the voluntary plan, and there are evidences that they will not." Also, beginning around July 1956, there are many letters and other items from H. M. Roland, superintendent of New Hanover County and Wilmington City schools, who responded favorably to the scientific language of George's arguments and, over the years, attempted to use George's writings as support for continued segregation of North Carolina public schools. In March 1957, George began an enduring correspondence with R. Carter Pittman of Pittman, Kinney & Pope of Dalton, Ga., counsel for the white children involved in the Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education school integration case (see series 1.4).

There are also a considerable number of letters and other items George received from individuals and organizations with extremist ideas on race relations. Very few items represent views contradictory to George's. There are also few family or personal materials and little relating to George's tenure at UNC.

Folder 13

1955 January-February #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 13

Folder 14

1955 March-May #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 14

Folder 15

1955 June-July #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 15

Folder 16

1955 August-September #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 16

Folder 17

1955 October #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 17

Folder 18

1955 November #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 18

Folder 19

1955 December #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 19

Folder 20

1955 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 20

Folder 21

1956 January #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 21

Folder 22

1956 February #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 22

Folder 23

1956 March #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 23

Folder 24

1956 April #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 24

Folder 25

1956 May #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 25

Folder 26

1956 June #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 26

Folder 27

1956 July #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 27

Folder 28

1956 1-14 August #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 28

Folder 29

1956 15-31 August #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 29

Folder 30

1956 September #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 30

Folder 31

1956 October-December #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 31

Folder 32

1956 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 32

Folder 33

1957 January-February #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 33

Folder 34

1957 March-April #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 34

Folder 35

1957 May-August #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 35

Folder 36

1957 September-December #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 36

Folder 37

1957 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.3. 1955-1957." Folder 37

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated.

About 2,225 items.

Although there are some references to the Patriots as late as April 1960, the group appears to have been replaced by the North Carolina Defenders of States' Rights around 1958. George served on the board of directors, and James P. Dees, rector of Trinity Episcopal Church, Statesville, N.C., was the president. While still fighting the battle to maintain racial segregation, the Defenders, especially in their later years, added a strong anti-communist stand. Although George was a less active Defender than he had been a Patriot, he still managed a lively correspondence with Dees and other members of the group at least through 1963, when the Defenders appear to have disbanded. Some movement towards starting a new patriots' group is evident in materials from 1964, but a letter dated 5 September 1964 shows that Dees had already moved on to the Anglican Orthodox Church of North America, which he and others had founded in November 1963. A brochure accompanying this letter states that members of the Church believed "...that the primary objective of the church should be to glorify God ... and not to issue edicts on social, political and economic matters, stirring up strife and discord and civil disobedience." There is no evidence that George was directly involved in any patriot-type groups after 1963. (For additional information on the Patriots of North Carolina, see a letter dated 20 January 1964, that contains George's summary of the group's activities. See also the taped and transcribed interview with George in Series 5.)

In February 1958, George started his campaign to persuade conservative I. Beverly Lake to run for governor in 1960. In 1959 and 1960, many items relate to George's activities as a manager, with strong support from the Defenders, of Lake's Democratic primary (28 May) and primary runoff (25 June) races. Included is a scattering of items documenting some of the financial contributions made to the campaign, particularly by small donors. After Lake's loss to Terry Sanford, letters show that George and his supporters endorsed the eventual loser, Republican Robert L. Gavin.

In 1959, George became interested in race issues in other countries, particularly in South Africa and Rhodesia. Materials reflecting this interest include papers in March 1959 documenting George's disapproval of the trip to South Africa made by UNC sociologist Guy Johnson, and letters showing that George hosted South African officials in 1962 and 1963. George's international interests later seemed to focus on supporting anti-communist and anti-United Nations groups.

Starting around 1960, there are scattered papers documenting George's thoughts on academic freedom, particularly as it relates to what he saw as indoctrination of college students by liberal professors and administrators. While George was also concerned with blocking invitations from local universities to liberal speakers--Hubert Humphrey, Langston Hughes (e.g., letter of 22 July 1960), Linus Pauling--there are only a few letters that directly relate to the 1965 Speaker Ban controversy that rocked UNC campuses. Similarly, there are very few items relating to the bitter fight that erupted in Chapel Hill when a fraternity pledged a black member in the same year. On a related topic, there are many items about the 1960 appointment as editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia Britannica of Harry Ashmore, who George labeled "an aggressive propagandist for race-mixing."

Many items in this time period relate to George's efforts to provide "scientific proof" of the inferiority of non-whites based on genetics. In 1961, "Race, Heredity, and Civilization" was published and widely disseminated by Britons Publishing Society, London, England, publisher of The Mankind Quarterly, International Quarterly Journal of Ethnology, Human Genetics, Ethno-psychology and Anthropo-geography , which began publication around 1960 and carried articles by George as late as 1968. On 18 October 1962, an editor at Britons wrote, "Your book is going all over the White World and I think it is doing a lot of good." In 1961, George was commissioned (see invoice dated 17 October 1971) by Governor John Patterson of Alabama to write a scientific study of the relative intelligence of white and African-American school children and college students. The study, completed in September 1962 and released to the public in October of that year as The Biology of the Race Problem, created quite a furor, since George was paid $3,000 from Alabama state funds to produce it. When the commission was announced, the American Anthropological Association passed a resolution condemning it, saying that the Association "...repudiates statements ... that Negroes are biologically and in innate mental ability inferior to whites.." In November 1963, Science ran an article condemning The Biology of the Race Problem, and, in early 1964, the debate over the merits of the study continued in letters to the journal. In February 1963, George was threatened with a lawsuit over a quotation out of context that he used in The Biology of the Race Problem; George avoided the suit by ordering errata sheets for the first edition and removing the quotation in subsequent editions. The Biology of the Race Problem appears to have sold quite well on both sides of the Atlantic; there are many requests for the book from individuals and groups, and, on 18 September 1966, there is a letter from a French publisher who wanted to translate and publish it in France.

There are also items beginning in 1958 and continuing into 1967, relating to George's testimony on genetics and race in the Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education school integration case (see series 1.3 for George's first contact with R. Carter Pittman, counsel for the white children involved in the Stell case). In 1963, there are materials documenting the judge's initial ruling that forbade segregation based on race and color.

George added several major correspondents during this period: Carleton S. Coon, curator of ethnology and professor of anthropology at the University Museum in Philadelphia and author of the racially slanted "The Story of Man" (1962); Carleton Putnam, founder of Chicago and Southern Airlines, Delta Airlines board of directors member, author of Race and Reason (1961), and publisher of The Putnam Letters, a series of texts on conservative topics; Henry E. Garrett, professor emeritus of psychology from Columbia University, president of the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, Inc. (IAAEE), and one of the editors of The Mankind Quarterly; Clayton Rand of Mississippi, owner of the Dixie Press, editor of rural newsPapers, and self-styled "fighting editor of the Deep South," who issued a series of pamphlets called "The Wit and Wisdom of Clayton Rand"; and Archibald Roosevelt, who appears to have been involved in distributing "Race, Heredity, and Civilization" in the United States. There are also scattered letters from public figures like Jesse Helms, then with WRAL-TV in Raleigh, and George Wallace, who wrote on 4 November 1963 about his appearance on the "Today Show."

During this period, there continue to be letters and other items from individuals and organizations with extremist ideas on race relations (e.g., a letter, 12 June 1960, from a man in Florida who was convinced that teaching white children to use "criticism, sarcasm, and caustic ridicule" against African-American children would end African-American's desire for school integration; a letter, filed with undated 1961 materials, from a person concerned with the anatomical characteristics of "a true Negro virgin"; a letter, 5 November 1963, from a man in Oregon about establishing a "Caucasian Peoples' National Homeland").

Again, in this period, there is little relating to family and personal matters. George's work at UNC is reflected chiefly in letters of congratulation on the ceremonial hanging of his portrait in the Medical School in April 1959. There are no materials relating to his becoming professor emeritus in 1961.

The volume of letters drops off significantly after 1964. 1968 materials end in July; there are very few items dated 1969-1971. Undated materials (circa 25 items) consist chiefly of copies of letters written by George on various topics and newsletters from organizations like the Federation for Constitutional Government and the Citizens' Protective League. The Citizens' Protective League's newsletter contains particularly graphic drawings relating to race inferiority.

Folder 38

1958 January-April #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 38

Folder 39

1958 May-August #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 39

Folder 40

1958 September-December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 40

Folder 41

1958 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 41

Folder 42

1959 January-February #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 42

Folder 43

1959 March-May #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 43

Folder 44

1959 June-September #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 44

Folder 45

1959 October-December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 45

Folder 46

1959 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 46

Folder 47

1960 January-March #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 47

Folder 48

1960 April #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 48

Folder 49

1960 May #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 49

Folder 50

1960 June #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 50

Folder 51

1960 July-October #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 51

Folder 52

1960 November-December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 52

Folder 53

1960 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 53

Folder 54

1961 January-March #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 54

Folder 55

1961 April-July #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 55

Folder 56

1961 August-October #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 56

Folder 57

1961 November #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 57

Folder 58

1961 December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 58

Folder 59

1961 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 59

Folder 60

1962 January-March #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 60

Folder 61

1962 April-July #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 61

Folder 63

1962 August-September #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 63

Folder 63-64

Folder 63

Folder 64

1962 October #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 63-64

Folder 65

1962 November #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 65

Folder 66

1962 December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 66

Folder 67

1962 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 67

Folder 68

1963 January #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 68

Folder 69

1963 February #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 69

Folder 70

1963 March #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 70

Folder 71

1963 April #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 71

Folder 72

1963 May #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 72

Folder 73

1963 June #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 73

Folder 74

1963 July #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 74

Folder 75

1963 August #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 75

Folder 76

1963 September #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 76

Folder 77

1963 October #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 77

Folder 78

1963 November #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 78

Folder 79

1963 December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 79

Folder 80

1963 Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 80

Folder 81

1964 January-February #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 81

Folder 82

1964 March-April #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 82

Folder 83

1964 May-August #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 83

Folder 84

1964 September-December and undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 84

Folder 85

1965 January-April #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 85

Folder 86

1965 May-August #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 86

Folder 87

1965 September-December and undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 87

Folder 88

1966 January-May #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 88

Folder 89

1966 June-September #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 89

Folder 90

1966 October-December and undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 90

Folder 91

1967 January-April #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 91

Folder 92

1967 May-September #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 92

Folder 93

1967 October-December #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 93

Folder 94

1968 #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 94

Folder 95

1969-1971 #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 95

Folder 96-97

Folder 96

Folder 97

Undated #03822, Subseries: "1.4. 1958-1971 and Undated." Folder 96-97

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 2. Writings, 1950s-1960s.

About 650 items.

Arrangement: by topic.

expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.1. Writings by George.

About 250 items.

Chiefly short writings by George on various topics as categorized below. There are, however, some longer works, especially in the genetics category. The categories are quite broad, and there is considerable overlap among them. In some cases, there are several versions of the same basic text, since George often borrowed freely from himself as he wrote articles and speeches for different occasions and purposes. Several writings in this series were prepared by George on behalf of the Patriots of North Carolina; a few others were written for I. Beverly Lake's 1960 gubernatorial campaign. Some writings appear in both typed and printed formats, and many of the typed copies are heavily edited in George's hand. Most writings are undated. Some of George's letters to editors, especially those that are dated, are filed in chronological order in Series 1. Writing fragments are filed with the notes in Series 3.

Folder 98

Academic freedom, including writings about speakers and courses at UNC that George considered controversial and about George's displeasure with the appointment of Harry S. Ashmore as editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia Britannica. About 20 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.1. Writings by George." Folder 98

Folder 99-100

Folder 99

Folder 100

Civil rights, including school integration and disagreements George had with church leaders on interracial activities. Included is "Human Progress and the Race Problem." About 50 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.1. Writings by George." Folder 99-100

Folder 101-105

Folder 101

Folder 102

Folder 103

Folder 104

Folder 105

Genetics and race. Included are: "The Biology of the Race Problem"; "Brains, Behavior, and Statecraft"; "Brains, Intelligence, and Populations"; "Genes, Brains, and Social Policies"; "Genetics and the Course of Civilization"; "Lecture to Dr. Odum's Class, April 24, 1946"; "Race Differences and Our Race Problem"; "Race, Heredity, and Civilization"; "The Race Problem from the Standpoint of" "One Who Is Concerned About the Evils of Miscegenation"; "A 'Scientific Racist's' Rejoinder"; "Statement of Dr. W.C. George on S. 1731 (Civil Rights Bill)." About 80 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.1. Writings by George." Folder 101-105

Folder 106

Miscellaneous, including a few writings broadly detailing the dangers of communism, several historical sketches relating to the UNC, a few writings about being a scientist, and a small number of original poems. Included are: "Medical Education in Chapel Hill--A Historical Sketch"; "The Responsibility of Scientists in the Era of Subversion of the Intellect." About 20 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.1. Writings by George." Folder 106

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Subseries 2.2. Writings by Others, 1940s-1970s.

About 400 items.

Chiefly short writings on topics having to do with race, many dealing with attempts to establish a genetic proof of the inferiority of African-Americans, Jews, and others. Some writings are published works, especially from journals like Eugenics Quarterly, while others are typed copies of works that were probably never published. The authors of most writings are identified, but the great majority are undated. Many writings are by R. Carter Pittman; there are also several publications of the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, Inc. (IAAEE), Henry E. Garrett of Columbia University, president. Writings have been grouped according to broad subjects, and there is much overlap among them.

Folder 107-119

Folder 107

Folder 108

Folder 109

Folder 110

Folder 111

Folder 112

Folder 113

Folder 114

Folder 115

Folder 116

Folder 117

Folder 118

Folder 119

Civil rights, including writings on school integration and citizens' councils. Included is Turn on the Lights (1966), a full-length draft sequel to Carleton Putnam's Race and Reason. About 250 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.2. Writings by Others, 1940s-1970s." Folder 107-119

Folder 120-124

Folder 120

Folder 121

Folder 122

Folder 123

Folder 124

Genetics and race, including copies of references used by George when compiling his testimony as expert witness in Stell v. Savannah-Chatham County Board of Education; a few UNESCO publications; and other scientific works. About 30 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.2. Writings by Others, 1940s-1970s." Folder 120-124

Folder 125-128

Folder 125

Folder 126

Folder 127

Folder 128

Miscellaneous, including pamphlets relating to South Africa, and a few writings about the dangers of communism. About 20 items. #03822, Subseries: "2.2. Writings by Others, 1940s-1970s." Folder 125-128

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 3. Notes, 1940s-1970s.

About 200 items.

Notes relating to writings of George and general comments by him on various topics. Included are annotated bibliographies, particularly on brain size; writing fragments, many of which were used in completed writings; and informal comments by George relating to quotations from various sources.

Folder 129-133

Folder 129

Folder 130

Folder 131

Folder 132

Folder 133

Notes, 1940s-1970s #03822, Series: "3. Notes, 1940s-1970s." Folder 129-133

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 4. Clippings, 1940s-1970s.

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Series 5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s.

About 50 items.
Folder 148

Biographical materials, including lists of accomplishments; publication lists and abstracts of particular writings; and an extensive interview on a 7-inch reel audio tape (T-3822/1) with typed transcription conducted by UNC graduate student Roy Flewelling in 1971-1972, chiefly focussing on George's activities with the Patriots of North Carolina, but also including information about George's early life and research interests. About 10 items. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." Folder 148

Genealogical materials, including correspondence, 1939-1967; notes; and clippings relating to George's interests in genealogy, particularly of the Critz, Dalton, and related families. About 100 items. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." Folder 148

Folder 149

Correspondence #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." Folder 149

Folder 150

Notes and clippings #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." Folder 150

Image P-3822/1

Wesley Critz George, portrait, undated. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." P-3822/1

Image P-3822/2-5

P-3822/2

P-3822/3

P-3822/4

P-3822/5

Wesley Critz George at various speaking engagements, 1955-1960. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." P-3822/2-5

Image P-3822/6

Haman Critz, photograph of drawing, undated. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." P-3822/6

Image P-3822/7

Critz homestead, built circa 1760, 1958. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." P-3822/7

Image P-3822/8

Hardin Reynolds Memorial School, Critz, Va., 1958. #03822, Series: "5. Other Materials, 1940s-1970s." P-3822/8

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expand/collapse Expand/collapse Items Separated

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Processing Information

Processed by: Roslyn Holdzkom, February 1994

Encoded by: ByteManagers Inc., 2008

This collection was processed with support, in part, from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Division of Preservation and Access.

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